Abstracts: CAT/DGK Session

Anti-Pollution – Protection of Skin and Hair
from Negative Environmental Influences

08:30 – 09:00 | Thursday, Main Auditorium
Specific Dual Urokinase/Plasmin Inhibition Improves Skin Resilience
and Protects from Environmental Influences

Remo Campiche
(DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Switzerland)
Decreased skin barrier functions induced by environmental factors belong to the most relevant concerns for consumers. A skin barrier with high resilience is required to act sustainably against negative environmental influences like UV-irradiation or air pollution. The market offers mostly superficial and short term solutions, hence a strong need for cosmetic ingredients with long term efficacy exists. UV-irradiation and air pollution can lead to cutaneous inflammatory reactions. We recently showed that the activities of proteases of the plasminogen system, plasmin and urokinase, are elevated in facial stratum corneum and correlated with transepidermal water loss (TEWL). We also demonstrated that plasmin activity is increased on sun-exposed facial stratum corneum.
This is why we developed a peptide based, specific dual inhibitor of urokinase and plasmin, benzylsulfonyl-D-Ser-homoPhe-(4-amidino-benzylamide). It suppresses inflammatory reactions by significantly down-regulating protein expression of cytokines (IL-8, -51% and CXCL5, -60%) and MMP-9 (-60%) in keratinocyte cultures, and strengthens the skin’s barrier by improving cornified envelope maturation and normalizing desquamation through up-regulation of transglutaminase-1 (461%) in-vitro and modulation of loricrin and desmoglein-1 ex-vivo. In a 28 day placebo controlled human study we showed that the urokinase/plasmin inhibitor was able to boost skin resilience 83% and to lower TEWL. The skin improved to resist the repeated detrimental effects of negative environmental influences mimicked by consecutive facial tape strippings. In addition, a questionnaire showed that the skin was smoother (+65%), more hydrated (+95%).
In summary the novel dual peptide based inhibitor for plasmin and urokinase giving consumers great looking skin and increased well-being due to a higher resilience towards repeated negative environmental influences. We identified plasmin as a root cause of skin barrier impairment, induction of inflammation and dry skin conditions. By inhibiting the plasminogen system the vicious circle of inflammation, barrier function and dry skin can be interrupted.
09:00 – 09:30 | Thursday, Main Auditorium
Prevent Skin and Hair from Going up in Smoke –
(Anti-)pollution: Perception, Impact and Practicable Studies of Efficacy

Dr. Leslie Schlüter¹, Dr. Elisabeth Streefland²
(¹ Sederma GmbH, Germany; ² Croda GmbH, Germany)
What is meant by pollution? How do end users interpret anti-pollution? What is the impact of the increasing consciousness on the market? What are the negative effects of environmental influences such as air pollution in and on skin and hair? How is an anti-pollution effect of a cosmetic product measured?
This lecture will take a closer look at these questions. The focus will be on the presentation of several in vitro and in vivo methods that can be applied to show the protection against negative environmental influences. Particularly to show with efficacy studies that a product or ingredient is active against damaging oxidative effects is a big challenge.
09:30 – 10:00 | Thursday, Main Auditorium
Wearable Skin Care – Skin Protection with Zinc-doped Textiles
Anne Schopfer, Dirk Höfer
(Hohenstein Institut für Textilinnovation, Germany)
The skin is a versatile protective barrier of the human body against harmful environmental influences. Dry air, cold and heat, chemicals, too much sun but also stress and too little sleep can damage the skin and lower the barrier effect.
Zinc is an essential trace element of metabolism and is part of skin-regenerating enzymes. Zinc ions act as an anti-oxidant in the skin, eliminate reactive oxygen species and thus prevent damage. Instead of applying zinc via creams to the skin, it can be processed into fabrics, e.g. socks, made from zinc-doped fibers and hence be "worn" permanently.
With a new testing system developed by the Hohenstein Institute, the transfer of zinc from textiles to the skin has recently been studied more detailed. For this purpose, a wearing situation has been simulated by the usage of HUMskin, a technical skin model. The zinc content of the skin model was chemically analyzed subsequently. HUMskin is an artificial polymer matrix, which reproduces properties of the human skin like the topography, pH, moisture and fat content and can therefore be used advantageously and realistically for in vitro tests.
First results show that relevant mounts of zinc can be transferred from the fabric to the skin while being worn. The examination model offers many possibilities to prove active substance transfer of biofunctional textiles or cosmetics which are used for skin care or protection against environmental influences.
10:15 – 10:45 | Thursday, Main Auditorium
Anti-pollution Claim – a Rationale for in vitro Testing
Dr. Katinka Jung, Marietta Seifert, Bernd Komp, Thomas Herrling
(Gematria Test Lab GmbH, Germany)
Among the environmental causes of skin distress, air pollution seems to play an increasing role, given the higher levels of exposure due to industrialization and urbanization.
There is an increasing number of skin care products launched over the last few years that use the anti-pollution claim. Although there are many different types and definitions of “pollutants” (ranging from cigarette smoke, particulate matter, PAHs), there are basically two strategies aimed to reduce the environmental impact on skin: 1) reduction of the contact between the pollutants and the skin, which is achieved by cleansing products or film formers. 2) topical application of antioxidants or anti-radical actives thought to reduce the oxidative stress caused by pollutants.
The experimental proof of the first strategy (removal of pollution particles) is relatively easy to conduct, also in in vivo studies. The experimental proof of the second strategy (oxidative stress) is much more complex. Many pollutants topically applied on the skin do not generate free radicals directly, but act as photocatalyzers, and synergistic damage by UV (A) radiation and pollutants is observed. Therefore, the measurement of UV-induced free radicals inside the skin, using an ex vivo skin model and Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (ESR) , seems to be a valid tool for the evaluation of all kind of (synergistic) damage and of different strategies to reduce the amount of inducible free radicals inside the skin and on the skin’s surface. Many factors may contribute to enhanced ROS induction in the skin during UV radiation: the presence of photocatalyzers, metal ions, and unstable organic UV filters may lead to radical chain reactions. Hydroperoxides of fragrance terpenes may lead to peroxidation of lipids. Glycosilation agents may lead to Maillard reaction with consequent radical intermediates. A more specific anti-pollution terminology is needed to differentiate the various types of damage and different biological responses.
10:45 – 11:15 | Thursday, Main Auditorium
Air Pollution and Skin Ageing
Dr. Andrea Vierkötter, Prof. Dr. Jean Krutmann
(IUF – Leibniz-Institut für umweltmedizinische Forschung, Germany)
Schaut man in einem dermatologischen Lehrbuch nach, so wird der Begriff extrinsische Hautalterung in der Regel synonym verwendet mit „Lichtalterung“ der Haut. Unbestreitbar ist, dass eine chronische Bestrahlung mit ultraviolettem Licht, insbesondere als Bestandteil des natürlichen Sonnenlichtes, ein, wenn nicht der wesentliche Grund für umweltinduzierte Hautalterungsprozesse darstellt. In den letzten Jahren ist aber sehr deutlich geworden, dass weitere Umweltfaktoren am vorzeitigen Alterungsprozess der Haut kausal beteiligt sind. Zu nennen sind hier einerseits Wellenlängenbereiche innerhalb des Sonnenspektrums, die distinkt von UVA- und UVB-Strahlung sind und in der Regel längerwellige Strahlung im Bereich des sichtbaren Lichtes und insbesondere im Bereich der kurzwelligen Infrarotstrahlung (Infrarot-A-Strahlung) umfassen. Darüber hinaus tragen sowohl partikuläre als auch gasförmige Bestandteile der Luftverschmutzung wesentlich zum Hautalterungsprozess bei.
Erste Hinweise hierauf gaben umweltepidemiologische Untersuchungen an einer Studienkohorte älterer Frauen, die Mitte der 80er Jahre im Ruhrgebiet als Teil des „Luftreinhalteplans“ der nordrheinwestfälischen Landesregierung eingerichtet wurde. Diese Kohorte umfasst Probanden die sowohl in stark verschmutzen Regionen des Ruhrgebietes, als auch in ländlichen Kontrollregionen lebten. Seit 1985 wurden routinemäßig unter Verwendung zahlreicher State-of-the-Art Parameter die Exposition dieser Probandinnen gegenüber Luftverschmutzung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Schwebstaub, aber auch gegenüber gasförmigen Bestandteilen der Luftverschmutzung erfasst. In einer im Jahre 2010 publizierten Originalarbeit konnte von A. Vierkötter et al. erstmals gezeigt werden, dass bei den Teilnehmerinnen dieser Kohorte eine signifikante Assoziation zwischen der Exposition gegenüber verkehrsabhängigen Schwebstaubpartikeln bzw. einer Exposition gegenüber Rußpartikeln und dem Auftreten von Hautalterungszeichen bestand. Die stärksten Assoziationen ergaben sich für das Risiko, Pigmentflecken (Lentigines) im Gesicht zu entwickeln, schwächer ausgeprägt war die Assoziation mit einer erhöhten Hautfaltenbildung.